?Proteins: AA Classification by R-Group ?Non-polar: VIL PAG MWF ?Polar: Q N STCY (Cute ni Stacey) ?Acidic: GluE ?Basic: HAL

?AA Classification by Need ?Essential: PVT TIM HALL or FVT WIM HRKL ?Non-essential: *the rest*

?Nucleotides ?purGA: Purine - Guanine, Adenine ?pyCUT: Pyrimidine - Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine

?Carbohydrtaes: Polysaccharides ?for structure PLANT - Cellulose FUNGI - Chitin ?for storage PLANT - Starch FUNGI - Glycogen

?Purine alkaloids Theophylline: 1,3-dimethylxianthine Theobromine: 3,7-dimethylxanthine Caffeine: 1,3,7-trimenthylxanthine

?Nucleotides: Nitrigneous base + Pentose sugar + PO4 ?Nucleosides: Nitrigneous base + Pentose sugar

?Extraction Methods (keywords) ?Infusion: Hot water ?Maceration: Soaked in long period of time ?Percolation: percolator ?Digestion: < 35-40°C ?Decoction: Boiling water ?Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Partitioning ?Distillation

?Indigenous vs Naturalized ?Indigenous: grow in own NATIVE land ?Naturalized: grow in FOREIGN land

?Structural Polysaccharides ?Cellulose: plants ?Chitin: animals

?Sterols ?Cholesterol: animals ?Ergosterol: fungi ?Phytosterol: Plants

?Abundancy of Lipids ?Triacylglycerols (TAGs) - Most abundant lipid ?Phospholipids - Most abundant MEMBRANE lipid ?Cholesterol - Most abundant STEROID

?Lipoproteins ?High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) - GOOD Cholesterol ?Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) - BAD Cholesterol [isipin nyo na lang yung Heaven nasa taas tas yung hell nasa baba]

?FATS vs OILS ?FATS - solid/semi-solid at room temp; animal fats ?OILS - liquid at room temp; plant sources

?Good/Bad Fats ?Monounsaturated - good ?Polyunsaturated - good/bad ?Saturated - bad ?Trans-fat - bad

?Abundancy of Proteins ?Collagen - most abundant protein in the body ?IgG - most abundant antibody in the plasma

?Mutations POINT MUTATION: Substitution of a single base ?Transition: SAME base sub ?Transversion: DIFFERENT base sub FRAMESHIFT MUTATION: +/- of a base

?Mutations based on EFFECT ?Silent: NO change in amino acid ?Missense: CHANGE in amino acid ?Non-sense: new STOP CODON

?START CODON ?AUG (Methionine) ?STOP CODON? ?UAG ?UGA ?UAA [UAG (wag) mong UGAin ang kama, baka UAA (crying sound) ang bata]

?Disaccharides ?Sucrose: glu + fru ?Lactose: glu+ gal ?Maltose: glu + glu

?Vitamin D ?Vitamin D2: Ergocalciferol ?Vitamin D3: Cholecalciferol

?Vitamin K ?K1: Phytomenadione ?K2: Phenylmenaquinone ?K3: Menadione ?K4: Menadione

?Vitamin B: TaRa Na PaPy B Feeling Close ?B1 - Thiamine ?B2 - Riboflavin ?B3 - Niacin ?B5 - Pantothenic acid ?B6 - Pyridoxine ?B7 - Biotin ?B9 - Folic acid ?B12 - Cobalamin

?Fat-Soluble Vitamins (w/ other names) ?A: Retinol ?D: Sunshine Vitamin ?E: a-tocopherol ?K

?Solvents for Extraction ?Hexane: fats ?Alcohol: resin ?Acetone: chlorophyll ?Acetic acid: solanin ?Hot benzene: chrysarobin

?IM Fixed oils ?Corn oil ?Cottonseed oil ?Peanut oil ?Sesame oil

?Enzyme Specificity ?Linkage Specificity: MOST GENERAL ?Absolute Specificity: MOST RESTRICTIVE ?Group Specificity ?Stereochemical Specificity

?Isomerism ?Epimers: only 1 chiral C differ ?Enantiomers: inversion of ALL chiral C ?Diastereomers: bet. epimers & enantiomers ?Anomers: Differ at C1 (alpha & Beta)

?Carbohydrate Metabolism ?Glycogenesis: Glucose to glycogen ?Glycogenolysis: Glycogen to glucose ?Glycolysis: Glucose to pyruvate ?Gluconeogenesis: Pyruvate to glucose 1/2

Tip: - Genesis: formation Ex: GlycoGenesis. Glycogen is formed - Lysis: break down Ex: GlycogenoLysis. Glycogen is broken down 2/2

? Glycogen Storage Diseases: Enzyme Deficient 0⃣:Glycogen synthase 1⃣Von Gierke: G6Pase 2⃣Pompe: Lysosomal a-glucosidase 3⃣Cori: Debranching enzyme 4⃣Andersen: Branching enzyme 5⃣McArdle: Muscle phosphorylase 6⃣Hers: Hepatic glycogen phosphorylase 7⃣Tarui: PFK

? AMINOACIDOPATHIES: Enzyme Deficient ?Alkaptonuria: Phenylalanine hydroxylase ?Albinism: Tyrosinase ?Homocystinuria: Cystathionine synthetase ?Phenylketonuria (PKU): Phenylalanine hydroxylase ?Maple syrup urine disease: Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase

?J.A. Schm[i]dt - first to [i]ntroduce the word pharmacognosy - “Lehrbuch der Materia Medica” ?[C].A. Seydler - first to [c]oin the word Pharmacognosy - “Analectica Pharmacognostica”

?Methods of Extraction + keywords ?Infusion - hot/cold water ?Maceration - soaking ?Percolation - percolator ?Di[G]estion - [G]entle heat ?De[coc]tion - [boi]ling water [may COCk ang BOIs] ?Distillation

?Preparation of Crude Drugs 1. Collection 2. Harvesting 3. Drying 4. Curing 5. Garbling - FINAL STEP ❗️[common BEQ]❗️ 6. Packaging, storage and preservation

‼️common BEQ‼️ Solid vegetable oil ➡️Theobroma aka "Food of the gods" Liquid animal fat ➡️Cod liver oil

?CARBOHYDRATES ?️Xylose: Wood Sugar ?️Glucose: Dextrose, Blood Sugar, Grape Sugar, Physiologic Sugar ?️Galactose: Brain Sugar ?️Sucrose: Table Sugar ?️Maltose: Malt Sugar ?️Lactose: Milk Sugar

?Alcohol ⬆️ conc: CNS Depressant ⬇️ conc: CNS Stimulant ~~ isipin nyo na lang ugali nyo pag umiinom. If konti pa lang, medyo na e-excite kayo pero if naparami na, naghihina/inaantok na ~~

?️Brandy: Wine [Winner si Brandy] ?️Whiskey: Malted Grain [Whiskey Malala] ?️Rhum: Molasses [Momol after Rhum]

?Gums ?️readily soluble in H2O ?️pathologic products ~~ GumSolPath ~~ ?Mucilages ?️form slimy masses in H2O ?️physiologic products ~~ Muci, the Slimy Phys ? ~~

?Methods of obtaining VOs: DISTILLATION ⚗️ ?Water? ?️dry sample ?️ not subject to injury by boiling ?Water & Steam?♨️ ?️dry/fresh sample ?️may be injured by boiling ?Direct Steam♨️ ?️fresh sample ?Destructive ❌️? ?️heat without air ?️empyreumatic oils

tRNA - smallest RNA. [T]iniest


?️Cholesterol – animals ?️Ergosterol – Fungi [EF] ?️[P]hytosterol – [P]lants

?Random palatandaan? ?️Essential amino acids • Essential = need -> need kainin • PVT TIM HALL or FVT WIM HALK

?Structural Forms of DNA? ?Right- handed ?️B form: MOST COMMON ?️A form: Dehydrated & Compact ?Left-handed ?️Z form: [Z]limmer than B-form

?️tRNA - smallest RNA. [T]iniest ?️rRNA - most abundant/pinakama[R]ami

?D-glucose ?️sweet; vital in the human Diet ?L-glucose ?️tasteless; Lang lasa

?Pectin ?️Protopectin: unripe ?️Soluble Pectin: ripe ?️Pectic acid: overripe

?Stearoptene: Solid [MenAT] ?️MENthol ?️Anethole ?️Thymol ?eLeoptene: Liquid [EMsE] ?️Eucalyptol ?️MethylSalicylate ?️Eugenol

?ALKALOIDS which are not solid: CANS ?(CANS Are Not Solid) ?️Coniine ?️Arecoline ?️Nicotine ?️Sparteine

?Vehicles for IM injection ?️COrn ?️COttonseed ?️peaNUT ?️SEsame [COCONUT SE] Coconut oil itself is not included

?Top Notes [sana ALL, TOP] ?️Anise Oil ?️Lemon ?️Lavender ?Middle notes [MIDDLE THRONE] ?️THyme ?️ROse ?️NEroli ?Base Notes [CAMm at my BASE] ?️Musk ?️Civet ?️AMbergis

?VOLATILE OILS: Plant & Plant Parts ?️Cinnamon oil: Dried bark [CinnaBark] ?️Oregano: Leaf & Flowering Tops [Org Leaf Flops] ?️C[LO]ve oil: F[LO]wer buds [LO] ?️Cardamon oil: Fruit [FruitCard] ?️Mu[S]tard: Seeds [MUSt SEED] ?️Sandal WOOD: Heart WOOD

?Benzoin Tincture [STAB Ben Tin (Ben 10)] ?️Storax ?️Tolu ?️Aloe ?️Benzoin

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